We might have control over something in the sense that we are free or have the capacity to control it, but that does not mean that we actually exercise that capacity or freedom. His point is that there might be different “large enough” proportions of close possible worlds in which events need not occur to be considered lucky. The concept of accident is closely related to the concept of luck. A key point of Broncano-Berrocal’s account is that, depending on the practical context, attributions of control such as “Event E is under S’s control” might refer either to effective control, to tracking control, or to both. The philosophy of luck, or perhaps even the philosophy of self, is that which seeks nothing other than precisely what has been assigned, wholly recognizing the grandeur and gift that is uniqueness. Riggs, Wayne 2007. For example, losing one’s keys and having to spend the night outdoors is bad luck if one gets a cold as a consequence, but it is also good luck if one thereby avoids an explosion in one’s apartment. Before considering an alternative approach to luck, let us see how subjective probabilistic accounts explain the three general features of luck presented at the beginning of the article. Steglich-Petersen gives an epistemic analysis of luck in terms of the notion of being in a position to know. For example, if one self-consciously chooses a specific lottery ticket and wins the lottery, one’s winning is by luck, but it is not an accident given that one was trying to win. For example, a lifeguard who accidentally goes to work very early and sees a swimmer drowning is lucky to be in a position to save the swimmer, but if done competently, it is not by luck that she saves him. Williamson compares probabilistic and modal conceptions of safety and risk and discusses how they bear on the theory of knowledge. On the other hand, the term “lucky” and expressions such as “a matter of luck” or “by luck” can be predicated of events—for example, “Chloe’s lottery win was lucky”—and states of affairs—for example, “It is a matter of luck that Chloe won” or “Chloe’s winning the lottery was by luck”; see Coffman (2014) for further discussion. Thus, what matters is not only the event-relative sense of risk, but also the agent-relative sense of risk. In contrast, for all B knows, her survival is very likely—she is a healthy person and has no reason to think that she has been poisoned. For instance, he thinks that not even the best batter in history can plausibly be said to have control over whether he hits the ball, since there are many factors over which he cannot exercise any sort of control—for example, distractions, the pitches he receives, and the play of the opposing fielders. On the other hand, advocates of the subjective approach might explain borderline cases of luck by appealing to the fact that the relevant subjective probabilities are not always transparent, so if we cannot determine whether an event is lucky or non-lucky, it is plausibly because the relevant subjective probabilities cannot be determined either. Hales gives three kind of counterexamples to probabilistic, modal, and lack of control accounts of luck. But SP4 might still not yield the right results. For example, someone would be clearly lucky if, unbeknownst to her, a bullet just missed her head by centimeters. He writes, “Prior to reflection it is intuitively plausible that people cannot be morally assessed for what is not their fault, or for what is due to factors beyond their control.” 1 We’ll call this principle, that how good one is cannot depend on factors beyond one’s control, the control principle . Intuitively, however, A and B would be equally lucky if they won the lottery. Rescher, Nicholas. 2013. Spell. One of the most widespread intuitions about luck is that lucky events are events beyond our control. Lotteries are typically not under our tracking control—although they might be if a Laplacian demon tells us what the result will be. As Lackey’s buried treasure case illustrates, if the occurrence of the components of a coincidence—A’s burial of the treasure and B’s digging at the same location—is highly probable or modally robust, the occurrence of the resulting coincidental event—B’s discovery of A’s treasure—is also highly probable or modally robust. Beryl therefore gets fewer resources overall, but this is fair becau… Lackey thinks that whimsical events—that is, events that result from actions that are done on a whim—show exactly this. After all, there are similar attributions of luck in ordinary speech. Milburn (2014) argues that (1) and (2) are plausibly equivalent: E is lucky for S if and only if S is lucky that E. (3) and (4) also seem equivalent: it is a matter of luck that E if and only if E is by luck. Coffman’s point is that sunrises are not lucky for the person living in the solar-powered underground facility, despite they are not under her control—tracking or effective. More specifically, coincidences are such that we cannot explain why they occur because there is no common nomological antecedent of their components or a nomological connection between them. According to Hales (2014), probabilistic views of luck such as OP1 or OP2 are the most widespread among scientists and mathematicians. It brings together and provides various new views on exactly what luck is and how particular analyses of luck make a difference to the position one adopts in various debates. University of Leuven (KU Leuven) 3. Probability and danger. Concerning goodness or badness, modal views can simply include a significance condition—although, as noted, Pritchard (2014), one of the main advocates of the modal approach, thinks that a significance condition is not necessary for luck. It seems to me the book is best seen and read as a catalyst for the debate on luck. Broncano-Berrocal proposes a lack of control account and argues that luck can be explained in terms of risk. The idea that morality is immune from luck finds inspiration inKant: Thomas Nagel approvingly cites this passage in the opening of his 1979article, “Moral Luck.” Nagel’s article began as areply to Williams’ paper of the same name, and the two articlestogether articulated in a new and powerful way a challenge for anyonewishing to defend the Kantian idea that an important aspect ofmorality is immune from luck, or independent of what is outside of ourcontrol. At any rate, accounting for why luck is good or bad is a desideratum at least for analyses of relational luck. 2009. Owens gives an account of coincidences according to which a coincidence is an event whose constituents are nomologically independent of each other. Plausibly, luck-involving expressions can be also predicated of items belonging to related metaphysical categories such as accomplishments, achievements, actions, activities, developments, eventualities, facts, occurrences, performances, processes, and states. For example, he contends that organisms—humans included—are lucky to be alive because the gravitational constant, G, is the one that actually is, but the probability that G made life possible is 1. Nagel classifies the various cases of moral luck as resultant, circumstantial, or constitutive luck—based on that which is affected by luck.9 In cases of resultant luck, a person Luck is to some extent a vague notion. But they face at least two problems. The epistemic analysis of luck. In the literature, there is some disagreement concerning whether or not the concept of fortune is the same as the concept of luck. Eudaimoniais often translated as “happiness,” but that’s a bit misleading. M1 has two important features. Luck and interests. Second, philosophers who believe that there is such a thing as luck should explain why people are systematically and predictably mistaken about luck. But if one’s aim is to account for non-relational luck instead—that is, when is an event lucky simpliciter—one will be reluctant to include such condition in one’s analysis—see Pritchard (2014) for further discussion. As we have seen, SP3 says that an agent is increasingly lucky with respect to an event the less likely the occurrence of the event—conditional on her evidence—is. Still, at least in some contexts, it seems correct to attribute luck to an object without interests, as when one says that one’s beloved car is lucky not to have been damaged by a fortuitous rockfall. Is that person lucky? Let’s start, then, by considering the question of whether we ought to try to equalise welfare or utility (for ‘utility’ read ‘happiness’, or better, ‘wellbeing’). McKinnon, Rachel. For that reason, the winner is lucky. moral luck is that our ordinary moral judgments routinely violate the control condition: people are praised and blamed for matters beyond their control. The concept of luck has played an important role in debates concerning free will and moral responsibility, yet participants in these debates have relied upon an intuitive notion of what luck is. However, SP5 might not capture the intuitions of other cases correctly. However, (1) and (2) are not equivalent to (3) and (4). The title of her chapter -- "You Make Your Own Luck" -- is provocative, for it seems that luck conflicts with control -- hence, the many lack of control accounts of luck that we find in the literature. Among Ancient philosophers such as Aristotle attention was given to the extent to which a person's character and flourishing depended on luck or, putting it differently, depended on factors outside a … Concerning vagueness, the notion of control is not as precise as to remove all vagueness from the analysis of luck. 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